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An ornament consisting of the rapid alternation of a note with its major or minor second, general known in English by the name of shake.

The ornament itself dates from about the end of the 16th century, but it received the name of trill at a somewhat later date, not to be exactly ascertained.

It is described in the ‘Nouve Musiche’ of Caccini, published in Florence in 1601, under the name of gruppo, a name with is now used to express a turn-like group of four notes, also called groppo, thus:


Caccini also makes use of the term trillo, but as indicating a pulsation or rapid repetition of a single sound sung upon a single vowel, an effect expressed in modern terminology by vibrato.

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